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Title: New methods to enhance regeneration of cotton plants from tissue cultures to aid crop improvement (OLD UMON1C)
Authors: Gang He, Ding
Keywords: Coker varieties
tissue culture
Siokra 1-4
Siokra 1-43
breeding lines
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2001
Publisher: CSIRO Plant Industry
Series/Report no.: ;CSP111C
Abstract: Cotton is currently the only crop whose transgenic varieties are used in large-scale production in Australia. Transformation of cotton is therefore of special importance for the healthy development of plant biotechnology in Australia. Unfortunately, cotton is also one of the most difficult plants to transform and regenerate from tissue culture. Currently, transformation of elite Australian cottons is through backcross to Coker varieties, which are no longer used in production. The main obstacle for direct transformation of Australian varieties, as well as most other non-Coker varieties around the world, is the lack of a reliable plant regeneration system for these varieties. CSIRO Plant Industry has had some success with one Australian variety, Siokra 1-4, and a breeding line, Siokra I-3, but only at low frequency in both cases. There are no published reports about embryogenesis or regeneration of other Australian cotton varieties. Even in the Coker varieties, which have been used as the model varieties in cotton transformation studies, transformation efficiency is low. To make things worse, this process is very time consuming, requiring more than 9 months to obtain transgenic plantlets from Coker varieties. In addition, it has been difficult to regenerate normal plants from cotton embryogenic callus, so the frequency of healthy transformed plants is very low even in the best available system. One way to speed up the genetic transformation of cotton is to substantially improve the regeneration of plants from tissue culture. The initial phase of our research focussed on applying techniques that have proven successful in lower plants and in carrot tissue cultures to induce elite lines of cotton to regenerate from tissue culture. In the course of this project, we concluded that a systematic study of the response of cotton to tissue culture conditions was necessary for development of reliable regeneration systems for cotton transformation. Most published reports are about success with specific genotypes, and the protocols outlined are essentially identical to earlier published protocols with small modifications. The paucity of information about culture conditions favouring cotton regeneration may be due to difficulties in collecting sufficient solid data for publication, as cotton tissue culture requires much more time and space than other commercial crops because the success rate is so low.
Appears in Collections:2001 Final Reports

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