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Title: Ecology and management of Bladder Ketmia (Hibiscus trionum) and other emerging problem Malvaceae weeds
Authors: Johnson, Stephen
Keywords: Hibiscus trionum L. (bladder ketmia)
common weeds
narrow leaf
Hibiscus trionum var. trionum
wide leaf
Anoda cristata (L.) Schltr. (anoda weed)
Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (velvetleaf or swamp Chinese lantern)
plant family, Malvaceae
dirty machinery movement
prevent seed set and cotton yield losses
Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius
lifecycle aspects
poor on-farm hygiene
integrated weed management (IWM)
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2003
Publisher: University of New England
Series/Report no.: ;UNE32C
Abstract: Hibiscus trionum L. (bladder ketmia) is one of the most common weeds throughout the Australian cotton industry. There are two varieties of the weed, the narrow leaf introduced variety Hibiscus trionum var. trionum and the native variety Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius (Hochr.). There are two types of the wide leaf variety, commonly differentiated by their yellow and red centre flowers. Both Anoda cristata (L.) Schltr. (anoda weed) and Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (velvetleaf or swamp Chinese lantern) are less common but increasingly problematic weeds from the same plant family, Malvaceae. Narrow leaf bladder ketmia is common in many ‘cooler’ and eastern areas and appears to be spreading outside these areas. Wide leaf bladder ketmia is more common in the ‘warmer’ western areas and is spreading within these areas. Anoda weed is a large problem in many areas in Queensland (Qld) and is spreading into areas in New South Wales (NSW). Velvetleaf is very uncommon in Qld and only found in small areas in NSW. Each of these species reproduces by seed and are spread by poor on-farm hygiene, by dirty machinery moving between clean and dirty areas (especially for anoda weed) and in water (especially the case for velvetleaf). Immediate action is required to manage these weeds and restrict their movement into areas where they presently do not occur. These weeds are common throughout spring, summer and autumn, although narrow leaf bladder ketmia grows and produces seeds all year round. Wide leaf bladder ketmia and velvetleaf produce mature seeds from December onwards and anoda weed from February. To prevent seed set and cotton yield losses, management of these weeds needs to address three lifecycle aspects, these being firstly, successive seedling flushes after rainfall and irrigation, secondly, preventing adult plants from setting seed and thirdly, ensuring that good farm hygiene is practised so that spread is prevented. There are a number of registered herbicide options to control both seedling and adult plants of bladder ketmia, but limited or no options for the treatment of anoda weed and velvetleaf respectively. Cultivation and chipping are useful management tools in-crop while good farm hygiene should centre on cleaning down machinery and removing weeds from irrigation system infrastructure. These tools should all be used in combination in an integrated weed management (IWM) regime to ensure that successful control is achieved. Further herbicide options may need to be pursued for the control of anoda weed and velvetleaf in Australian cotton farming systems.
Appears in Collections:2003 Final Reports

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