REVISED METHODS FOR MONITORING RESISTANCE TO CONVENTIONAL INSECTICIDES
Standard techniques for monitoring conventional insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera originally developed for broad-spectrum contact insecticides involved topical bioassays of insects in the F0 generation. However, limitations are associated with these techniques for monitoring resistance to newer selective products. This paper describes revised protocols for monitoring resistance to emamectin benzoate, chloranthraniliprole and indoxacarb including using F2 screens to identify non-dominant genes that may enhance survival. Additionally, the introduction of bioassay methods appropriate for products active by ingestion is also described. These protocols will increase capacity for isolating low frequency resistance which is difficult to detect using traditional monitoring techniques.